The Emancipation Proclamation went into effect on January 1st, 1863, legally freeing 3.5 million enslaved people in the Confederate states. But of course, this executive order from President Abraham Lincoln came in the midst of the United States Civil War, which didn’t end until April of 1865 – the order could not be enforced until the war was over.
Juneteenth celebrates when enslaved people actually became free in 1865. The date, June 19th, commemorates General Gordon Granger of the Union Army announcing the executive order in Galveston, Texas, freeing all enslaved people in Texas.
Community access TV stations around the country have shown local celebrations of Juneteenth for years, and we thought this 2013 talk by Dr. Shennette Garrett-Scott at the Allen Public Library in Texas (via Allen City TV) was particularly helpful in understanding the history of this important day.
- Oberlin College Library Anti-Slavery Collection
- Boston Public Library Anti-Slavery Collection
- James Birney Collection of Anti-Slavery Pamphlets
- Duke University Libraries, Confederate Imprints
- Lincoln Programs at the Allen County Public Library
- Civil War Documents
- Historical Slavery Collection from the Federal Writers’ Project